### INTRODUCTION

### MATERIALS AND METHODS

### Materials

### Direct costs

### Indirect costs

### Methods

*DC*) consisted of direct medical costs such as expenses of insured and uninsured items for inpatients and outpatients at medical institutions and at pharmacies to treat liver disease and direct non-medical costs like traffic costs to visit medical institutions and costs of caregivers for inpatients. Therefore, as shown in the following formulas for estimation, the direct medical costs were estimated by summing the total treatment amount of inpatients (

*IP*) and outpatients (

*OP*) and at pharmacies (

*P*) based on the health insurance data by gender, age and disease (Appendix 1) and the value of multiplying the total treatment amount by the rate of uninsured out-of pocket payments to the total treatment amount of each group (α, β, γ) (Appendix 2). In addition, the traffic costs were obtained by multiplying the number of visit days (

*OV*) by gender, age and disease (Appendix 3) by the average round-trip traffic costs per one visit to outpatient clinic (

*MT*), and the costs of caregivers were done by multiplying the number of hospitalization days by gender, age and disease (

*IV*) (Appendix 3) by the daily average personnel expenses of caregivers (

*MC*).

*DC*= direct costs*i*= 1, 2, ..., n disease,*j*= 1, 2 gender,*k*= 0, 1, ..., n age*IP*= total treatment amount of inpatients of_{ijk}*i*,*j*and*k*in health insurance data*OP*= total treatment amount of outpatients of_{ijk}*i*,*j*and*k*in health insurance data*P*= total treatment amount at pharmacies of_{ijk}*i*,*j*and*k*in health insurance dataα = rate of uninsured out-of pocket payments to total treatment amount of inpatients

β = rate of uninsured out-of pocket payments to total treatment amount of outpatients

γ = rate of uninsured out-of pocket payments to total treatment amount at pharmacies

*OV*= number of visit days of_{ijk}*i*,*j*and*k**MT*= average round-trip traffic costs per one visit to an outpatient clinic of_{j}*j**IV*= number of hospitalization days of_{ijk}*i*,*j*and*k*,*MC*= daily average costs of caregivers

*S*), the employment rate (

*E*), the yearly average real wage (

*YW*), the real wage growth rate (

*WR*) and the discount rate (

*r*) by the number of deaths due to liver disease by gender, age and disease (

*D*) (Appendix 4).

*PLC*) was estimated by multiplying the sum of the number of hospitalization days by gender, age and disease (

*IV*) and a third of the number of visit days (

*OV*) (Appendix 3) by the employment rate by gender and age (

*E*) and the daily average wage by gender and age (

*DW*). At this time, to revise the difference in the loss of productivity between outpatients and inpatients, the rate of physician productivity for outpatients to that for inpatients suggested by Noh et al14 and Jung and Ko2 was applied. The number of non productive days was calculated by adding one third of the number of visit days to the number of hospitalization days.