Korean J Hepatol > Volume 15(2); 2009 > Article
The Korean Journal of Hepatology 2009;15(2): 148-158.
doi: https://doi.org/10.3350/kjhep.2009.15.2.148
Analysis of the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma
Young Il Kim , Ho Seok Ki , Min Hyoung Kim , Dong Keun Cho , Sung Bum Cho , Young Eun Joo , Hyun Soo Kim , Sung Kyu Choi , Jong Sun Rew
Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea
Spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a rare but life-threatening complication. Although the prevalence rate and mortality of HCC has been reportedly high in Korea, studies on ruptured HCC are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of ruptured HCC. Methods: Among 886 cases with HCC that had been diagnosed at Chonnam National University Hospital from January 2002 to December 2007, 62 cases (7.0%) with ruptured HCC were studied retrospectively regarding their clinical characteristics and prognostic factors. Results: Transarterial embolization was performed in 56 cases (90.3%) to control bleeding, with a hemostasis success rate of 89.3%. The survival time after the rupture of HCC was 8.0±1.7 months (mean±SD), although it was longer in HCC cases that were first diagnosed in a ruptured state or ruptured with a small amount of bleeding than in those that ruptured during follow-up after diagnosis or with a large amount of bleeding, respectively. The 30-day mortality rate in patients with a ruptured HCC was 43.5%, and the early deaths were independently associated with the presence of hepatic encephalopathy (odds ratio, OR=44.7; 95% confidence interval, CI=1.9-1051.1; P=0.018), serum bilirubin >3.0 mg/dL (OR=36.7; 95% CI=1.3-1068.5; P=0.036), and the massive or diffuse type of tumor morphology (OR=53.5; 95% CI=3.0-964.2; P=0.007). Conclusions: The prognosis in patients with ruptured HCCs was poor with a 30-day mortality of 43.5%. The early deaths after the rupture of HCC were associated with elevated serum bilirubin levels, hepatic encephalopathy, and the massive or diffuse type of tumor morphology. (Korean J Hepatol 2009;15:148-158)
KeyWords: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Rupture; Prognosis

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